First aid for sprains and fractures

Great pain and swelling often characterize both a sprain and a fracture but inability to move the affected part and unnatural twisting are often indicative of a bone break.


Types Of Sprains
1. Eversion


2. Inversion


A sprain often results from a stretching or tearing of one or more of the ligaments that hold the ends of bones together in a joint or a tearing of the fibres of a joint capsule. Until a bone break has been ruled out, a severe sprain should be treated as a fracture. Frequently, incomplete or partial fractures occur with bad sprains and only an X-ray can provide conclusive diagnosis.



Types Of Fractures
1. Compound



2. Spiral



3. Comminuted



4.Oblique



A fracture is caused by sudden, violet pressure on the bone; whereas a sprain occurs when a bone is suddenly wrenched at a joint. All severe sprains are accompanied by tearing of ligaments or fibres around the joint; because the slightest movement of the affected parts causes the injured person great pain and may increase the damage, no attempt should be made to straighten or move broken limbs until the arrival of medical help. To prevent the ends of the bone from tearing blood vessels, splints should be used to immobilize the broken parts and the joints above and below the fracture if the injured person must be taken to hospital. Splints can be improvised of light, smooth boards or folded cardboard and tied to the broken part with a strip of cloth.

If the head or body of the victim is twisted in an unnatural position, a fracture of the spinal column may have taken place and any attempt at straightening or moving the body may be fatal. Other signs of a broken spinal column are severe pain in the back or in the neck and paralysis of the lower extremities.

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