Energy for Ion Formation

 In order for the outermost electron to be removed from an atom, the attraction between the negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus must be overcome. The process of removing electrons and forming ions is called ionization. Energy is needed for ionization. This energy is called ionization energy.
The ionization energy for atoms that have few valence electrons is low. Do you know why? Only a small amount of energy is needed to remove electrons from the outermost energy level. As a result, these atoms tend to lose electrons easily and to become positive ions. What elements would you expect would have low ionization energies?

The ionization energy for atoms with many valence electrons is very high. These atoms do not lose electrons easily. As a matter of fact, these atoms usually gain electrons. It is much easier to gain 1 or 2 electrons than to lose 7 or 6 electrons! The tendency of an atom to attract electrons is called electron affinity. Atoms such as fluorine are said to have a high electron affinity because they attract electrons easilyWhat other atoms have a high electron affinity?

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