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Friday, 7 July 2017

How antibiotics are produced.

Antibiotics are chemicals substances produced by microorganisms which are effective in dilute solution in preventing the spread of other microorganisms. Examples of antibiotics are penicillin and chloramphenicol.
1. In the manufacture of penicillin, a stirred-tank fermenter is inoculated with a culture of Penicillium notatum or Penicillium chrysogenum.

2. The fungus is grown under optimum condition: 24 °C, good oxygen supply, slightly alkaline pH.

3. Production of penicillin starts after 30 hours reaching a maximum of about four days.

4. Production ceases after about six days, at which point the content of the fermenter are drained off, washed and discarded.

5. The liquid filtrate containing penicillin is chemically extracted and purified using solvents to from crystalline salts.

6. This salt is used in the production of penicillin ointment and other products.

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