How To Stop Severe Bleeding

Severe Bleeding
Welling or Spurting blood is the unmistakable sign of severe bleeding. The presence of blood over a considerable area of the victim's body is not a reliable indication of the amount of blood loss. The blood may be oozing from multiple small wounds or may have been smeared; giving the appearance of serious loss of blood. The rate at which blood is lost from a wound depends on the size and kind of blood vessel ruptured. Injury to an artery may be identified by bright red, Spurting blood, in contrast to the Welling, dark red blood from a vein. In case of a major arterial rupture, the victim may bleed to death within minutes. Venous and minor arterial injuries have a less critical time limit but. if left unattended, may also be fatal. A serious consequence of extensive bleeding is shock which must be considered as soon as the flow of blood has been checked.

The procedure used to stop bleeding depends on the size of the wound and on availability of first-aid materials. The preferred method is by application of pressure over the wound itself and by elevating the bleeding part if possible. This procedure is not effective on wounds involving medium-sized blood vessels. If possible. a pad of sterile dressing or clean cloth is held firmly in place by means of bandages on the bare wound. Dressings that become saturated with blood should not be removed but may be reinforced with additional layers. If no dressing material is available or if the victim is rapidly losing blood from a wound on one of the extremities, pressure may be applied to the blood-supplying artery at a particular spot. called the pressure point; only in the case of the brachial artery, which supplies blood to the arm. and the femoral artery. which supplies blood to the leg. It should be applied where the artery passes close enough to the skin to permit its compression against the underlying bone. There is a strict limit of a 15minute pressure to avoid gangrene setting in. With smaller arteries, direct pressure on the wound should suffice.

The major pressure point on the brachial artery is located approximately halfway between the elbow and the armpit on the inner side of the arm. Severe bleeding from a wound of the hand or the lower arm may be checked by grasping the arm firmly between the thumb and the fingers; which are placed over the pressure point. The major pressure point on the femoral artery is situated on the front centre part of the diagonally slanted 'hinge' of the leg, in the crease of the groin area, where the artery crosses over the pelvic bone.

The heel of the hand pressed firmly at this point stems the flow of blood from a leg wound. The two arterial branches that supply blood to the head are the temporal and the facial arteries. Circulation of blood to the face may be impeded by pressing against the underside of the lower jawbone; about an inch in front of the angle of the jaw, with the side of the index finger or the hand. Bleeding of the head above the eyes may be checked by pressure applied at a point just in front of the ear.